Digital Library on Green Mobility


Forks in the Road to E-Mobility: An Evaluation of Instrument Interaction in National Policy Mixes in Northwest Europe

Publication Year: 2020

Author(s): Dijk M, Iversen E, Klitkou A, Kemp R, Bolwig S, Borup M, Mollgaard P


This paper assesses how policy shaped the development of electric mobility in three countries, Norway, the Netherlands and Denmark, between 2010 and 2015. This paper gives insights in the interaction effects of instruments on the diffusion of battery electric cars between five policy areas. Based on analysis of synergetic, contradictory and pre-conditional effects, the authors find that an effective policy mix which includes fiscal incentives that mirror the actual carbon footprint of the respective vehicles; non-fiscal demand-side incentives; centrally financed and/or coordinated charging infrastructure; clarity regarding the choice of technology that will be supported. Moreover, development of a domestic, e-mobility-related industry and a high share of renewable energy strengthen the legitimization of e-mobility support. The findings help designing policy mixes in the transition to electric mobility.

Source of Publication: Energies

Vol/Issue: 13(2), 475: 20pp.

DOI No.: DOI: 10.3390/en13020475

Country: Norway

Publisher/Organisation: MDPI AG

Rights: Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (


Theme: Vehicle Technology | Subtheme: Electric vehicles

Related Documents

Research Papers/Articles


Battery models have gained great importance in recent years, thanks to the increasingly massiv... Read More

Research Papers/Articles


The diffusion of electric vehicles in Italy has started but some complications weight its spre... Read More