Digital Library on Green Mobility


Resilience Oriented Vehicle-to-Home Operation Based on Battery Swapping Mechanism

Publication Year: 2021

Author(s): Mehrjerdi H


The electric vehicle (EV) battery swapping is a strategy to increase the acceptance rate of EVs and to deal with the concerns regarding lengthy charging times and range anxiety related to the EVs. This paper considers battery swapping and energy resilience in the building integrated with electric vehicle (EV), reserve battery, and solar energy. The building is able to continue the operation under both the off-grid and grid-tied states. The EV and reserve battery are coordinated for battery swapping strategy, energy cost reduction, and energy resilience improvement. The battery swapping strategy enables the EV to leave the building at each hour of the day when needed by the owner. Such flexible battery swapping model makes the EV available for owner at all time periods of the day even when the EV has just arrived to the building with empty battery. This strategy increases the acceptance rate of EVs and deals with the concerns regarding lengthy charging times. The coordinated EV and reserve battery also enables the system to supply the load demand following events like outage of solar or grid energy. Such model significantly improves the energy resilience in the given home energy management system. The uncertainty of solar power is modelled by output scenarios and the problem is solved under a range of scenarios of uncertainty. To eliminate the solar uncertainties under off-grid operation, the super capacitor is applied. The results verify that the EV and reserve battery cannot individually achieve the mentioned purposes and the coordinated plan of EV and reserve battery is the most efficient program. The coordinated plan utilizes both the EV and reserve battery properly, when one of them is not available the other one can accurately fulfill the desired outputs. The reserve battery reduces the cost by about 8 percent, improves resilience and allows the emergency battery system to swap as needed.

Source of Publication: Energy

Vol/Issue: 218(119528): 1-15p.

DOI No.: 10.1016/

Publisher/Organisation: Elsevier Ltd

Rights: Elsevier Ltd


Theme: Charging Infrastructure | Subtheme: Battery Swapping stations

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