Digital Library on Green Mobility


Low Voltage Grid Resilience: Evaluating Electric Vehicle Charging Strategies in the Context of the Grid Development Plan Germany

Publication Year: 2024

Author(s): Reibsch R, Gemassmer J, Katerbau T


The ongoing transition to decentralized renewable energy sources and sector-coupled consumers is reshaping the energy system. Changes at lower grid levels can stress lines and transformers. Crucial for a successful local energy transition are grid relief measures. Battery electric vehicles contribute to higher loads on grid equipment but also offer flexibility. This paper assesses the influence of four different charging strategies for battery electric vehicles across five representative low-voltage grids based on the grid development plan in Germany for the years 2021, 2037, and 2045. Results indicate that grid stress, specifically capacity stress, will emerge by 2037 and 2045. Decentralized photovoltaic systems are the primary contributors to this stress due to high simultaneous generation. Up to nearly 20 % of photovoltaic power may need to be curtailed in 2045, especially in rural grids during the summer, to prevent overloads. Charging strategies based on the wholesale power market prices can accidentally cause grid overloads caused by higher consumption, which means that local grid restrictions need to be thought about. Implementing grid-friendly charging strategies, such as reduced charging power or alignment with local photovoltaic production, can mitigate those grid overloads from almost 8 % down to 0.11 %. However, these charging strategies have limited impact on photovoltaic-induced overloads due to the low number of connected battery electric vehicles during the day. Charging strategies can alleviate low-voltage grid stress and address the challenges of decentralized energy transition and battery-electric vehicle adoption.

Source of Publication: eTransportation

Vol/Issue: 100323

DOI No.: 10.1016/j.etran.2024.100323

Country: Germany

Publisher/Organisation: Elsevier

Rights: Elsevier Ltd.


Theme: Charging Infrastructure | Subtheme: Public charging station

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