Nonlinear Model Predictive Control for the Energy Management of Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicles in Real Time
Publication Year: 2021
Author(s): Pereira DF, Lopes FDC, Watanabe EH
Fuel cell hybrid electric vehicles (FCHEVs) are emerging as a promising alternative for a more environment-friendly transportation. This article recommends an energy management system (EMS) for FCHEVs. The EMS is based on nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC) and employs a recurrent neural network (RNN) for modeling a proton exchange membrane FC. The NMPC makes possible the formulation of control objectives not allowed by a linear model predictive control (MPC), such as maximum efficiency point tracking of the FC, while the RNN can accurately predict the FC nonlinear dynamics. The EMS was implemented on a low-cost development board, and the experiments were performed in real time on a hardware-in-the-loop test bench equipped with a real 3-kW FC stack. The experimental results demonstrate that the NMPC EMS is able to meet the vehicle's energy demand, as well as to operate the FC in its most efficient region. In addition, a comparative analysis is performed between the proposed NMPC, a linear MPC, and the of hysteresis band control. The results of this comparative study show that a better fuel economy is given by the NMPC and can reduce the deterioration of FC.
Source of Publication: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Vol/Issue: 68(4): 3213-3223p.
DOI No.: 10.1109/TIE.2020.2979528
Publisher/Organisation: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Rights: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. (IEEE)
Theme: Vehicle Technology | Subtheme: Electric vehicles
Tags: Fuel cell technologies, Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs)
Published Year: 2019
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