Digital Library on Green Mobility


Behavior of Battery Metals Lithium, Cobalt, Manganese and Lanthanum in Black Copper Smelting

Publication Year: 2020

Author(s): Danczak A, Klemettinen L, Kurhila M, Taskinen P, Lindberg D, Jokilaakso A


Recycling of metals from different waste streams must be increased in the near future for securing the availability of metals that are critical for high-tech applications, such as batteries for e-mobility. Black copper smelting is a flexible recycling route for many different types of scrap, including Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment and some end-of-life energy storage materials. The aim of this study is to investigate the suitability of secondary copper smelting process for recycling of battery metals lithium, cobalt, manganese, and cobalt. The results reveal that most cobalt can be recovered into the copper alloy in extremely reducing process conditions, whereas lithium, manganese, and lanthanum deport predominantly in the slag at all investigated oxygen partial pressures.

Source of Publication: Batteries

Vol/Issue: 6(1), 16: 1-17p.

DOI No.: DOI: 10.3390/batteries6010016

Country: Germany

Publisher/Organisation: MDPI Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute

Rights: Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (


Theme: Business Models | Subtheme: Battery Recycling & Reuse

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