Modeling and Experimental Investigation of Thermal Comfort and Energy Consumption in a Battery Electric Bus
Publication Year: 2021
Author(s): Cigarini F, Fay T-A, Artemenko N, Göhlich D
In battery electric buses (e-buses), the substantial energy consumption of the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system can cause significant reductions of the available travel range. The operation of the HVAC system in e-buses is based on norms and regulations in Germany, which, however, typically do not rely on empirical data to determine the thermal comfort of the passengers. New accurate guidelines based on empirical data are therefore necessary to optimize the operation of HVAC systems in e-buses. Therefore, this paper proposes a method to experimentally investigate the influence of the HVAC system on the energy consumption and thermal comfort in a 12 m e-bus. An appropriate thermal comfort model is identified and the required climatic input parameters are selected and measured with self-developed sensor stations. The energy consumption of the e-bus, the state of charge (SoC) of the battery and the available travel range are measured by an embedded data logger. Climatic measurements are then performed with heating on and off on a Berlin bus line in winter conditions. The results show that the energy consumption of the e-bus is increased by a factor of 1.9 with heating on, while both the SoC and travel range are reduced accordingly. Comparing the thermal comfort with heating on and off, a decrease from “comfortable” to “slightly uncomfortable but acceptable” is observed.
Source of Publication: World Electric Vehicle Journal
Vol/Issue: 12(1), 7: 1-22p.
DOI No.: 10.3390/WEVJ12010007
Publisher/Organisation: MDPI AG
Rights: Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https:// creativecommons.org/licenses/by/ 4.0/)
Theme: Charging Infrastructure | Subtheme: Electric bus charging
Tags: Battery electric vehicles, BEVs, Electric automobiles, Electric buses, Electric vehicles, EV charging infrastructure, Charging stations, Energy consumption, HVAC system, Charging (batteries), Energy utilization, Secondary batteries, Experimental investigations, State of charge, Substantial energy, Thermal comfort models, Battery electric vehicles