Digital Library on Green Mobility


Low-Carbon Transport Policy in Four ASEAN Countries: Developments in Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam

Publication Year: 2017

Author(s): Bakker S, Contreras KD, Kappiantari M, Tuan NA, Guillen MD, Gunthawong G, Zuidgeest M, Liefferink D, Van Maarseveen M


Countries in Southeast Asia are experiencing rapid growth in motorisation and associated negative impacts on congestion, air quality, road safety, energy security, urban liveability, and greenhouse gas emissions. This article has shed light on the policy developments in four ASEAN countries. This paper presents a comparative analysis of the approach and status of sustainable, low-carbon transport policy in ASEAN countries and identifies differences and similarities. The methodology is based on a taxonomy of policy components as developed by Howlett and Cashore. The data come from comprehensive country studies for Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam and interviews with policymakers. The authors find that each country has a specific set of goals, objectives and targets that support sustainable transport, and, directly or indirectly, climate change mitigation. In terms of specific mechanisms and calibrations, which the authors analysed based on the Avoid−Shift−Improve approach, there are notable differences between the countries, for example in terms of fuel economy policy. When looking at the current status of policies on sustainable transport and climate change, the authors found several common elements across the four countries. First, at the level of policy ends, each country has a set of goals, objectives and specific targets or settings in policy plans and strategies that support sustainable transport, and, directly or indirectly, climate change mitigation. Second, looking at the component of policy mechanisms, all four countries are active in development of nationally appropriate mitigation actions in the transport sector. Third, the policy ends are not always consistently matched with the policy tools.

Source of Publication: Sustainability

Vol/Issue: 9(7), 1217: 1-17p.

DOI No.: DOI: 10.3390/su9071217

Publisher/Organisation: MDPI

Rights: Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (


Theme: Policies and Regulations | Subtheme: International

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